CSE-Engineering Center of Safety Excellence GmbH

Pressure surges


Can a pressure surge possibly occur in your plant? Ask the experts!

According to 2014/68/EU (Pressure Equipment Directive PED), static and dynamic fluid pressures as well as collapse pressures of unstable fluids have to be considered under all possible pressure and temperature combinations that may occur under predictable operating conditions of the equipment. Not only damage caused by water hammer but also forces acting on supports or anchorages should be estimated in order to prevent failure. Simple and quick estimates are often sufficient to be able to predict the general occurrence of a pressure surge in the system. In other cases, it may be helpful to use CFD and FEM methods to obtain an exact calculation of the pressure distribution and effective mechanisms in the plant in order to be able to take targeted measures.

With years of experience in the estimation of pressure surges, the experts at CSE will be pleased to advise you whether and in what size a pressure surge can occur in your plant and what countermeasures you should take to protect against pressure surges.


Dr.-Ing. Natalie Schmidt
Process Safety Engineer

phone_in_talk +49 721 6699 4836
email Send an email

Service range

  • Estimation of pressure surges in liquids
  • Estimation of gas pressure surges
  • Advice on countermeasures against pressure surges
  • Precise calculation of pressure surges with a CFD simulation and coupling to FEM, if necessary
  • Pressure shock resistant design of components
  • Pressure-resistant design of components

This service can also be provided via web conference.

CSE-Engineering – Webbased services

With us you are safe

Simple pressure surges in liquids are estimated with the so-called Joukowsky surge, where the pressure increase due to the pressure surge within a pipeline is calculated on the basis of fluid properties such as density and sonic velocity as well as the change in velocity of the fluid. In a 4″ pipe (DN 100) with an operating pressure of 10 bar, the pressure in the pipeline can increase when a gate valve closes and thus the velocity decreases from 5 m/s to 60 bar, causing permanent damage to the pipeline. Pressure surges in gases are often much lower than in liquids, but care must still be taken during sizing. When pressure rises, gases often deviate from ideal conditions and develop real gas behaviour. This means that common models are no longer applicable.

State of technology – Standards

In the field of pressure surges, the following standards have to be considered unless more detailed methods for specific process plants apply and therefore define the state of technology. In every single case the application limits of the standards and the assumptions behind the methods have to be examined:

  • 2014/68/EU (Pressure Equipment Directive PED)
Publications | Manuals
  • Comming soon

Training & Coaching

With the Applied Safety Premium Seminar “pressure surges” of the CSE Academy, you will also provide your employees with an in-depth understanding of the methodology and its practical implementation. Also as in-house training.

CSE Acadeny

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