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Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) is used to characterize temperature-dependent physical and chemical material properties in a precisely controlled atmosphere. In TGA, the mass of a sample is measured while it is heated or cooled in a specified atmosphere. It is mainly used to characterize materials with regard to their composition. With a TGA/DSC instrument it is even possible to measure thermal events that do not lead to a change in mass, such as melting processes, glass transitions or other solid-solid transitions.
Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) is often used in combination with DSC, TMA and DMA. The system can be connected online to a mass spectrometer or FTIR spectrometer to determine the type of gas products produced. In combination with a moisture generator, it can also be used to investigate sorption processes.
The sample (1 – 10 mg) is subjected to a constant heating rate and the mass and mass change over temperature is recorded.
Mass change over time and temperature
Pressure and temperature curve during reaction
Temperature range from ambient to 1000 °C
Measurement under air of nitrogen flow
Coupling with mass spectrometry
Measurements at different heating rates to investigate decomposition kinetics
Images courtesy of TA Instruments, Eschborn, Germany